I haven’t looked very detailed yet into Golem, but from what I’ve read it sounds like it’s basically a market place for computing power, a bit like a decentralized cloud,where users who want to earn money run VM’s on their computer while those who have tasks to do rent time on these VMs. This marketplace runs on an ethereum based token. It uses a reputation system to give nodes an incentive to do the calculations correctly.
It would seem to me that something like this could run equally well and be equally useful on SAFE. You have distributed computation, where you don’t have a 100% guarantee that there won’t be any malicious nodes, but most of the time there won’t be and for many applications it doesn’t matter. If you want to render an image for example, you don’t want to do the same rendering many times on many computers to ensure it’s not being faked or whatever. You just want to finish the rendering as quickly and cheaply as possible. In the unlikely case that the image looks messed up, you can just run the rendering again.
There might be more to Golem than this, but it’s the impression I got at least.
edit: Golem will eventually use TrueBit for verifications of computations it looks like, not sure if that’s something that will be done to all computations or only if a user suspects that something is wrong.